Cholesterol is also known as lipoproteins, which can be divided into high-density, low-density and very low-density types. In the body, cholesterol provides the raw material for bile and hormones, carries fat-soluble vitamins and aids in immunity.
Carbohydrates are also known as starches, sugars, saccharides and polysaccharides depending on their chemical structure. The primary function of carbohydrates in the body is to provide fuel for countless processes, including muscular contraction, brain function and hormone production, and to aid storage of fat.
Also known as monosaccharides, sugars include fructose, sucrose, glucose and galactose. Sugar is a fast source of energy used by the body for a wide range of processes.
Fiber is also known as roughage or indigestible plant matter. In the body, fiber slows digestion, stabilizes blood sugar levels and aids waste elimination.
Protein, also called a compound of amino acids, can be called complete when all of the essential amino acids are present. A crucial building block for the body, protein is used to make tissues, energy, hormones, antibodies and enzymes as well as to regulate cell division.
Fats are also called lipids or triglycerides and can be roughly divided into saturated and unsaturated types. An important nutrient, fat is burned for energy, essential for absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D and E and used as insulation to keep the body warm.
Caffeine is also known as mateine and its chemical name trimethylxanthine. Once consumed, caffeine boosts levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine, increasing vigilance, heart rate, blood pressure and fat oxidation and reducing sleepiness as a result.
Water is also known as H2O, which refers to its molecular composition of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen. Virtually every process in the body depends on having enough water, including metabolism, waste elimination, cellular life, temperature regulation and nutrient transport.
Alcohol is also known as ethanol or drinking alcohol. Functions of alcohol in the body include sedation, disinhibition, mood elevation, respiratory depression and diuretic effects.